Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Zodiac Signs Lesson Plan for ESL Classes

Whether students believe in the Zodiac or not, working with Zodiac sign descriptions provides a great opportunity to widen their vocabulary about personality and characteristic adjectives. Use these Zodiac signs to get students talking about themselves and their friends. Youll all have a good laugh, and students will improve their active vocabulary beyond the standard happy, funny, sad, and lucky. Aim: Improve personality adjectives vocabulary Activity: Reflections on yourself and a friend Level: Upper Intermediate to Advanced Outline: Make sure the students have access to a good dictionary.Cut the Zodiac sheet up into strips and pass them out based on their birth dates.Ask students to find their own Zodiac sign and read through the description making sure they understand every descriptive adjective or phrase provided on the sheet.Once students understand the adjectives, they are asked (on the worksheet) to choose three traits they agree with and two they disagree with. Students should provide a reason and/or an example for each of these chosen traits.Have students share their descriptive adjectives with each other in a group discussion, citing the reasons why they agree or disagree with their chosen traits.Ask students to pair up, this time distribute strips based on the birthday of the students partner.Repeat exercise. Your Zodiac Sign Aries / March 21 - April 20 Aries is the first sign of the Zodiac and is associated with fresh vigor and new beginnings. Individuals born under this sign are said to have an enthusiastic, adventurous, aggressive, humorous, passionate, and pioneering character but one which is also prone to selfishness, boastfulness, intolerance, impulsiveness, and impatience. Positive Adventurous and energeticPioneering and courageousEnthusiastic and confidentDynamic and quick-witted Negative Selfish and quick-temperedImpulsive and impatientFoolhardy and daredevil Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Taurus / April 21 - May 20 Taurus is the second sign of the Zodiac and associated with material pleasure. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a calm, patient, reliable, loyal, affectionate, sensuous, ambitious, and determined character, but one which is also prone to hedonism, laziness, inflexibility, jealousy, and antipathy. In terms of anatomy, Positive Patient and reliableWarmhearted and lovingPersistent and determinedPlacid and security loving Negative Jealous and possessiveResentful and inflexibleSelf-indulgent and greedy Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Gemini / May 21 - June 21 Gemini is the third sign of the Zodiac and associated with youth and versatility. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a sociable, fun-loving, versatile, lively, communicative, liberal, intelligent, mentally active and friendly character but one which is also prone to moodiness, inconsistency, superficiality, restlessness , and laziness. Positive Adaptable and versatileCommunicative and wittyIntellectual and eloquentYouthful and lively Negative Nervous and tenseSuperficial and inconsistentCunning and inquisitive Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Cancer / June 22 - July 22 Cancer is the fourth sign of the Zodiac and associated with family and domesticity. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a kind, emotional, romantic, imaginative, sympathetic, nurturing, and intuitive character, but one which is also prone to changeability, moodiness, hypersensitivity, depression, and clinginess. Positive Emotional and lovingIntuitive and imaginativeShrewd and cautiousProtective and sympathetic Negative Changeable and moodyOveremotional and touchyClinging and unable to let go Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Leo / July 23 - August 22 Leo is the fifth sign of the Zodiac and is associated with the keywords magnanimous, generous, hospitable, caring, warm, authoritative, active and open. Leos are typically pictured as very dignified and regal. They are hard-working, ambitious and enthusiastic, however, they are prone to laziness and can often take the easy way out. They are known to be exuberant, extroverted, generous with a natural dramatic flair and very creative. They are typically very self-assured and love taking center-stage in every arena. Positive Generous and warmheartedCreative and enthusiasticBroad-minded and expansiveFaithful and loving Negative Pompous and patronizingBossy and interferingDogmatic and intolerant Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Virgo / August 23 - September 22 Virgo is the sixth sign of the Zodiac, a set of astrological signs, and associated with purity and service. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a diligent, analytical, self-sufficient, controlled, orderly, and modest character but one which is also prone to fussiness, perfectionism, harsh criticism, coldness, and hypochondria. Positive Modest and shyMeticulous and reliablePractical and diligentIntelligent and analytical Negative Fussy and a worrierOvercritical and harshPerfectionist and conservative Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Libra/ September 23 - October 22 Libra is the seventh sign of the Zodiac and associated with justice. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a pleasant, articulate, charming, charismatic, fair, artistic, social, refined, diplomatic, even-tempered and self-sufficient character, but on the negative side, are also thought to be indecisive, flirtatious, extravagant, lazy, analytical, frivolous, impatient, envious, shallow, aloof, and quarrelsome. Positive Diplomatic and urbaneRomantic and charmingEasygoing and sociableIdealistic and peaceable Negative Indecisive and changeableGullible and easily influencedFlirtatious and self-indulgent Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Scorpio / October 23 - November 21 Scorpio is the eighth sign of the Zodiac and associated with intensity, passion, and power. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a complex, analytical, patient, keenly perceptive, inquisitive, focused, determined, hypnotic, and self-contained character, but one which is also prone to extremity, jealousy, envy, secretiveness, possessiveness, cruelty and cunning. In terms of anatomy, Positive Determined and forcefulEmotional and intuitivePowerful and passionateExciting and magnetic Negative Jealous and resentfulCompulsive and obsessiveSecretive and obstinate Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Sagittarius / November 22 - December 21 Sagittarius is the ninth sign of the Zodiac and associated with travel and expansion. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a straightforward, dynamic, highly intelligent, extremely clever, ethical, humorous, generous, open-hearted, compassionate, and energetic character, but one which is also prone to restlessness, impulsiveness, impatience, recklessness, and childishness. Positive Optimistic and freedom-lovingJovial and good-humoredHonest and straightforwardIntellectual and philosophical Negative Blindly optimistic and carelessIrresponsible and superficialTactless and restless Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Capricorn / December 22 - January 19 Capricorn is the tenth sign of the Zodiac and associated with hard work and business affairs. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have an ambitious, modest, patient, responsible, stable, trustworthy, powerful, intellectual, perspicacious and persistent character but one which is also prone to coldness, conservatism, rigidity, materialism, and dullness. Positive Practical and prudentAmbitious and disciplinedPatient and carefulHumorous and reserved Negative Pessimistic and fatalisticMiserly and grudging Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Aquarius / January 20 - February 18 Aquarius is the eleventh sign of the Zodiac and associated with future ideas and the unusual. Individuals born under this sign are thought to have a modest, creative, challenging, inquisitive, entertaining, progressive, stimulating, nocturnal, and independent character, but one which is also prone to rebelliousness, coldness, erraticism, indecisive, and impracticality. Positive Friendly and humanitarianHonest and loyalOriginal and inventiveIndependent and intellectual Negative Intractable and contraryPerverse and unpredictableUnemotional and detached Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: Pisces / February 19 - March 20 Pisces is the twelfth and last sign of the Zodiac and associated with human emotions. Individuals born under this sign are thought to be tolerant, modest, dreamy, romantic, humorous, generous, emotional, receptive, affectionate, and have an honest character, but are also prone to exaggeration, fickleness, passiveness, hypersensitivity, and paranoia. Positive Imaginative and sensitiveCompassionate and kindSelfless and unworldlyIntuitive and sympathetic Negative Escapist and idealisticSecretive and vagueWeak-willed and easily led Which three traits do you think are true about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am:I am:I am: Which two traits do you think are false about you? Please list and give a reason for each. I am not:I am not: This exercise is based on the Zodiac resource page at Wikipedia.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Throughout the history of literature, there have been many...

Throughout the history of literature, there have been many tales of tragic heroes. These heroes include Oedipus from Oedipus Rex, Cassius from The Tragedy of Julius Caesar and many others. Many may ask, â€Å"What is a tragic hero?† A tragic hero is a person of noble birth with heroic or potentially heroic qualities. This person is fated by the gods or by some supernatural force to doom and destruction or at least to great suffering. But the hero struggles greatly against this fate and this cosmic conflict wins our admiration. In short, a tragic hero is a character of noble beginnings who is doomed and destined for defeat, downfall or suffering. Macbeth is the perfect example of a tragic hero because he embodies all these traits and†¦show more content†¦Throughout this drama, his ambition shows him change in character and introduce a new character who embraced hunger for power, paranoia, greed and violence. The reason why Macbeth is to blame is he made a personal cho ice to do everything he did. For many other tragic heroes, there is a prophecy stating they will kill someone but for Macbeth the choice was on that he made for himself. Another great contributor to the downfall of Macbeth was his wife, Lady Macbeth. In the beginning of the play, Lady Macbeth is painted as a caring and loving person with no hint of being a threat. However after reading further, she is depicted as a person to fear – the brain behind the actions. She backed up Macbeth and fueled and influenced his action to the point that she offered to kill King Duncan for him but after she states that she is not capable of killing. Lady Macbeth’s most important role was the schemer for the death and murder of King Duncan. Even if Lady Macbeth decided to withdraw from Macbeth she would have still been cited as an important contributor to Macbeth becoming a tragic hero because she opened the door to his first killing which gave him the ability to kill and in the process transforms him to a person that kills in face of adversity and complications. The prophecies that Macbeth received from the three witches were also another influence that led him to become a tragic hero. Without hearing that he would become the Thane of Glamis, Thane of Cawdor, and the KingShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Epic Heroes 1270 Words   |  6 PagesLuck of the Hero (An analysis of epic heroes) Often when reading literature, the reader can’t help but think that no character could have such qualities as they are portrayed in the story. A classic example of this are the epic heroes that help facilitate the history of important cultures. The epic is a long piece of poetry describing a hero’s journey to a better self and complete a mission. These heroes are often extremely brave and smart, which can leave the audience doubting any historical accuracyRead MoreSignificance And Significance Of Mythology1743 Words   |  7 Pagesunderstand why human cultures create myths. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of people—their body of stories which they tell to explain nature, history, and customs—or to the study of such myths. As a collection of such stories, mythology is a vital feature of every culture. Various origins for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature, personification of natural phenomena to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events, to explanations of existingRead MoreAnalysis Of Tim Burton s The Brilliant Joker Essay1588 Words   |  7 Pagesissue with someone as awesome as the Batman getting in their way. 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The main characters’ flaws are arrogance which is the source of many of their troubles. Thor and Odysseus’ biggest character flaw is arrogance. Their arrogance leads them into even worst situations that could have easily been prevented. In the Odyssey, Odysseus and his crew wereRead MoreGreek Mythology8088 Words   |  33 Pages  set  of  diverse  traditional  tales  told  by  the  ancient  Greeks  about  the  exploits  of  gods   and  heroes  and  their  relations  with  ordinary  mortals.   The  ancient  Greeks  worshiped  many  gods  within  a  culture  that  tolerated  diversity.  Unlike  other  belief   systems,  Greek  culture  recognized  no  single  truth  or  code  and  produced  no  sacred,  written  text  like   the  Bible  or  the  Qur’an.  Stories  about  the  origins  and  actions  of  Greek  divinities  varied  widely,   depending,  for  example,  on  whether  the  tale  appeared  in  a  comedyRead MoreThe Importance Of Being Earnest Focus On The Lives Of Men1609 Words   |  7 PagesLiterature, like any art discipline, has its’ notable players and its’ cult heroes. William Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde could not be any more different from one another as far as their writings go and even more so with their personalities. Of course, it is important to note that any good writer has a part of them being reflected in their work. Their difference could be just due them being different individuals with different personality traits. However, the era in which they wrote and lived haveRead MoreThe Timeless Truths of Homers Iliad1784 Words   |  8 PagesJames Hutchinson Ms. Spicer AP Literature 20 August 2010 Homers Timeless Truths Is Homers The Iliad relevant to todays society? Is this work a timeless parable depicting universal human truths transcending time and context or merely a superbly-crafted epic poem to be studied and admired for its stylistic brilliance? Has the text endured simply because of Homers dramatic verse or because of the timeless human truths it conveys? Was it written to persuade readers to question the moral implicationsRead More Christian and Pagan Influence in Paradise Lost and Beowulf Essay4093 Words   |  17 Pages(Descend from heav’n Urania, by that name / If rightly thou art called [7.1-2]) wherein Milton places his muse Urania, the Greek muse of astronomy, in Heaven and distinguishes her as Christian, Milton works to integrate the Christian and pagan throughout Paradise Lost. Although a detailed account of the reasoning behind his form is beyond the scope of this essay, because a strict Classicist might resent the intrusion of the Biblical models, [and] a strict ‘P uritan’ might equally resent the degradationRead MoreElizabethan Era11072 Words   |  45 PagesThe Elizabethan Age is the time period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. It was an age considered to be the height of the English Renaissance, and saw the full flowering of English literature and English poetry. In Elizabethan theater, William Shakespeare, among others, composed and staged plays in a variety of settings that broke away from Englands past style of plays. It was an age of expansion and exploration

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Apartheid Of African Americans - 1083 Words

African Americans endured in these days of slavery. For the white man to mistreat them as if they were animals, is unforgiving. But we worship an awesome God and as long as the whites have repented they can be forgiven. I never thought that I would come to learn pain and disgrace of a human being (thinking they’re superior) of the other simply because of their skin color until I saw the documentary of Slave after Slave (12 years a slave documentary). To see the lynching that took place during that time was overwhelming to watch. The removal of their dignity that the African Americans were stripped of, were not buried with their respect and pride attached rather humiliated. The white man took numerous photographs of themselves and sometimes†¦show more content†¦Drugs are bigger with them it is just hidden and they maybe a little more careful than careless. It is wrong to pass judgment on someone or an ethnicity just because of their skin color. And I agree with Carlos, another panelist on the same show, stated that in some states there are some people that are just plain â€Å"ignorant† judging someone by their skin color is not a legitimate reason to disrespect, mistreat, or taunt anyone because you are trying to be better than the next person, we are all human. In the modern world today there are Black Americans whom are unhappy with themselves. They want to be white and do not want to be black. Now that is something to think about. As I pondered on a panelist who was on the Trisha Goddard Show entitled â€Å"Black Woman Hates Herself and Wants to Be White† she expressed the fact that she wanted to be accepted by the white community. Now she is a black woman wearing a blonde wig and blue contacts to change the color of her eyes. What kind of respect and acceptance is she going to get looking like that, I mean just be yourself. On the Trisha Goddard Show, the question is asked to her, â€Å"What makes you want to change all together?† She tells the host and the audience that she likes what being a white person has

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Tourism Entrepreneurship in New Zealand

Question: Describe about the Tourism Entrepreneurship in New Zealand? Answer: Introduction Nature-based tourism is progressively critical in view of its capability to add to nearby and local financial improvement. Business tourism opportunities are frequently referred to as routes by which provincial groups which are regularly denied of previous extractive business opportunities through the assignment of ensured range status to adjacent grounds can create and develop in new headings. The opportunities can possibly give two fundamental arrangements of advantages: the monetary and social advantages of the extra business movement created through concessions, and open backing for the preservation, upkeep and upgrade of the secured zones as an aftereffect of the previous set. Effective preservation depends on the association of the neighborhood group, and open backing is more prone to happen if the fascination of guests from outside the zone gives extra wage that generally would not be produced. Components that influenced the degree of the effect of the concessional thing on th e visitor plan fused the formation of the entry gathering, highlights of the region's tourism zone, park organization, characteristics of the concession visitor and highlights of the concessional thing. It is proposed that DOC, close-by forces, regional tourism affiliations and the tourism business collaborate to gather data about the piece of national stops in the headway of section gatherings and the nearby tourism division, and that future investigation joins data assembling on both compromise and non-concession visitor use of parks (Page, Stephen, and Jovo Ateljevic). Particularly examination regarding the piece of agents in this progression is small, and there has been an underestimation of the obviously crucial part that individuals can play in choosing the current position of a destination. Hypothetically, the paper draws on the written work on models of destination change. While this written work has seen the convincing piece of agents in the destination change process, it is fought that with everything taken into account, these models have underplayed the effect that adjacent business visionaries play in tourism progression. Finance To set up a new business, attempt land or building improvement, or change the reason for a property, your first step is to seek an arranging grant from your nearby committee. The arranging grant gives prove that the chamber has issued you authorization to add to your property. Make a meeting with a chamber arranging officer who will take you through the application process. You will be instructed on the zoning concerning your property and some other neighborhood arranging conditions that apply to your improvement (Rimmington, Mike, and Chris Cooper). And also protecting your premises and resources, the accompanying extra protections can be basic for tourism organizations. Open obligation of at any rate $10 million to cover paying clients, Product risk to cover arranged nourishment or different items offered to visitors, Motor vehicle protection if your vehicle is utilized for business purposes, Your strategy for success is the most critical archive you will ever plan for your busines s. It portrays all parts of your business wander; from what administrations or items you expect to convey, to financing and promoting systems. It will control you and your group towards accomplishing your targets. It can likewise be utilized to put your case to investors or potential financial specialists. There are a scope of ways you can go about business arranging and numerous wellsprings of refrain. This aide gives a prologue to the issues that are especially imperative to tourism organizations, and guides you to more point by point guidance and data where proper. The Tourism Industry Association gives CD Tourism in real life assets for effective tourism organizations. Problem and Risk Tourism New Zealand will influence both New Zealand based and seaward occasions, gaining by their profile and believability to drive prevalence and convey a destination message. The Hobbit films will keep on giving a critical stage to influence off for crusade and PR movement. The dispatches of the second and third motion pictures in the USA and UK will be utilized as extensive scale occasions as a part of key markets to convey the 100% Pure New Zealand message. The International Media Programmers will assume a crucial part in supporting inclination building action and will convey brand messages through outsiders and an extensive variety of media channels, including social networking. Tourism is a development industry globally, with development originating from the rising economies specifically. This is a huge open door for New Zealand (Saayman, M, and J). Exceptional hobbies can be a solid motivation to pull in guests to New Zealand for a mixture of intrigues, for example, business occasions, golf, ski, strolling, cycling, exploring and so on. In like manner the more youthful 18-29 year old explorer presents huge open door. Utilizing this enhanced focusing inside businesses, endeavors will be centered on changing over the pool of individuals 'effectively considering' a trek to New Zealand into real guests. At times, engagement is more straightforward by sending Active Considerers straightforwardly to battle pages or accomplice locales where they may have the capacity to make a buy. Expanding on experience and knowledge picked up into Active Considerers inside key markets, promoting will be centered on plainly characterized higher quality guests who will drive exp anding worth from guests by promising them to stay longer and accomplish more while in New Zealand. Tourism New Zealand's risk profile is audited all the time by the Audit Committee and is submitted to the Board for regard on a yearly basis. I think possibly the most serious issue we've got is absence of acknowledgment of who is really in the business. On the off chance that you are a dairy rancher and you've got a bundle of cows in your enclosure and a truck turns up several times each day to take away the milk, you know you are in the dairy business. At the same time in the event that you are a burger bar on the West Coast or a service station, I'm not certain you know you are in the business (Weiermair, Klaus et al). There's an entire cluster of organizations that presumably get an exceptionally critical piece of their turnover out of tourism yet they are not mindful of its. Some person visiting down the West Coast in a campervan is going to burn through cash here and there, yet individuals who own those organizations don't understand they are in the business. Its a horrendously divided industry. Significant subsidizing change Strategic and business arranging ineffectual Corporate notoriety decays Significant IT breakdown Unplanned loss of key staff References Botha, Melodi, Felicite Fairer-Wessels, and Berendien Lubbe. Tourism Entrepreneurs. Cape Town: Juta, 2006. Print. Bras, Karin. Entrepreneurship And Education In Tourism. [Bandung?]: ATLAS Asia, 1999. Print. Hall, Colin Michael, and Allan M Williams. Tourism And Innovation. London: Routledge, 2008. Print. Morrison, Alison J, Mike Rimmington, and Claire Williams. Entrepreneurship In The Hospitality, Tourism And Leisure Industries. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999. Print. Page, Stephen, and Jovo Ateljevic. Tourism And Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009. Print. Rimmington, Mike, and Chris Cooper. Tourism And Entrepreneurship. Woodeaton: Goodfellow Publishers, 2011. Print. Saayman, M, and J. A Snyman. Entrepreneurship. Potchefstroom: Leisure C Publications, 2005. Print. Weiermair, Klaus et al. Innovation And Entrepreneurship. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 2010. Print.

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Aviation insurance Essays

Aviation insurance Essays Aviation insurance Essay Aviation insurance Essay Words fall short to express my deep sense of gratitude towards them all, who have imparted their valuable time, energy and intellect towards the beautification of my project. I express my sincere gratitude to our principal our coordinator for their continuous support and encouragement. I extend my sincere gratitude to PROOF. PROHIBIT JITTERS my guide for guiding me throughout the project and for helping me whenever required. I also thank my collage library for also thank My God, My parents and My friends for their contribution towards the project. Objective of the project This project has been undertaken with following objectives in mind: To understand the Insurance Sector in India, its nature functioning. To understand the concept of Aviation Insurance. To comprehend the impacts of the new norms on the functioning of the Insurance sector in India. To understand how these norms are put to practice. This involves understanding of the coalition of input data, the process of data sorting, computing according to the norms, assessing different stress scenarios and the final output of such computations. It also involves close observation of the problems faced in implementation. To draw a parallel of this situation to the Insurance industry as whole. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research always starts with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to question through the application of the scientific method. It is a systematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studied. There are two types of data collection method use in my project report. Primary data For my project, I decided on primary data collection method for observing Aviation Insurance Company. For this information I visited to the Reliance General Insurance. Asked the questions to sales manager about the aviation insurance. Secondary data I decided on Secondary data collection method was used by referring to various websites, books, magazines, Journals and daily newspapers for collecting information regarding project under study. Executive Summary Aviation Insurance was first introduced in the early years of the 20th Century. The first aviation insurance policy was written by Loads of London in 1911. The company at an air meet caused losses on many of those first policies. Insurance is one of the most popular in business today since they characterized the new economy acceptance of country boundaries. The purpose of these study the valuation process approaches in aviation by analyzing the insurance corporation case base upon the valuation this report will identify the why aviation insurance is needed. This report the Indian Insurance sector, History of insurance in India, History of Aviation Insurance, products features of Aviation Insurance, Effects Of 9/1 1 Attack On Aviation Insurance INDEX SIR. NO CHAPTER History Of Insurance 9_15 2. Origin Development Of Insurance 16-21 3. History Of Aviation Insurance 22-27 4. Products Of Aviation Insurance 28-37 5. Future of aviation insurance 38-49 6. Case Study 50-58 7. Conclusion Bibliography Aviation Insurance CHAPTER 1 HISTORY OF INSURANCE 1. 1 Introduction Humans have always sought security. This quest for security was an important motivating force in the earliest formations of families, tribes, and other groups. The groups have been the primary source of both emotional and physical security since the beginning of humankind. Humans today continue their quest o achieve security and reduce uncertainty. We still rely on groups for financial stability. With industrialization our physical and economic security has diminished. Mankind is exposed to many serious hazards, which cause stoppage of income. The biggest worry any human being has is the economic worry. He is always thinking of tomorrow and the days to come and he will be planning to meet the demands of his family, his business and that of his own needs. The economic worries may arise due to stoppage of income. Our income dependent, wealth- acquiring lifestyle renders us and our families more vulnerable to environmental and social changes over which we have no control. There may be accidents, sickness disability, or due to premature death of the readiness. It is impossible to prevent such calamities. But it is always possible to provide against the loss of income that may result out of such these perils. Risk is defined as uncertainty of financial loss. If the event were certain to happen, then there be no loss if the event were certain not to happen, then also there is no loss. It is the uncertainty about the time of loss that worries the mankind. Insurance in India The insurance sector in India has come a full circle from being an open competitive market to nationalization and back to a liberalized market again. Tracing the developments in the Indian insurance sector reveals the 360 degree turn witnessed over a period of almost two centuries. 1. 2 An Overview of Insurance Industry Insurance has a long history in India. Life Insurance in its current form was introduced in 1818 when Oriental Life Insurance Company began its operations in Triton Insurance company set up its base in Kola. History of Insurance in India can be broadly bifurcated into three areas: a) Pre Nationalization b) Nationalization and c) Post Nationalization. Life Insurance was the first to nationalize in 1956. Life Insurance Corporation of India was formed by consolidating the operations of various insurance companies. General Insurance followed suit and was nationalized in 1973. General Insurance Corporation of India was set up as the controlling body with New India, United India, National and Oriental as its subsidiaries. The process of opening up the insurance sector was initiated against the background of Economic Reform process which commenced from 1991. For this purpose Malory Committee was formed during this year who submitted their report in 1994 and Insurance Regulatory Development Act (ERDA) was passed in 1999. Resultantly Indian Insurance was opened for private impasses and Private Insurance Company effectively started operations from 2001. 1. 3 Global Standards While the world is eyeing India for growth and expansion, Indian companies are becoming increasingly world class. Take the case of LICK, which has set its sight on becoming a major global player following an Rests-core investment from the Indian government. The company now operates in Mauritius, Fiji, the I-J, Sir Lankan, and Nepal and will soon start operations in Saudi Arabia. It also plans to venture into the African and Asia-Pacific regions in 2006. The year 2005 was a testing phase for the mineral insurance industry with a series of catastrophes hitting the Indian sub- continent. However, with robust reinsurance programmers in place, insurers have successfully managed to tide over the crisis without any adverse impact on their balance sheets. With life insurance premiums being Just 2. 5% of GAP and general insurance premiums being 0. 65% of GAP, the opportunities in the Indian market place is immense. The next five years will be challenging but those that can build scale and market share will survive and prosper. 1. REGULATORY ACTS A number of acts govern the insurance sector The Insurance Act, 1938 The Insurance Act, 1938 was the first legislation governing all forms of insurance to provide strict state control over insurance business. General Insurance Business (Nationalization) Act, 1972 The General Insurance Business (Nationalization) Act 1972 was enacted to nationalize the 100 odd general insurance companies and subsequent ly merging them into four companies. All the companies were amalgamated into National Insurance, New India Assurance, Oriental Insurance, and United India Insurance. Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999 Till 1999, there were not any private insurance companies in Indian insurance sector. The Gobo. Of India then introduced the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act in 1999, thereby De-regulating the insurance sector and allowing and capped at 26% holding in the Indian insurance companies. 1. 5 Regulations for Indian Insurers To protect the interests of holder of insurance policy and to regulate, promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance industry Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (ERDA) was established. Under the new dispensation Indian insurance companies in private sector were permitted to operate in India with he following conditions: Company is formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956. The aggregate holdings of equity shares by a foreign company, either by itself or through its subsidiary companies or its nominees, do not exceed 26%, paid up equity capital of such Indian insurance company. The Companys sole purpose is to carry on life insurance business or general insurance business or reinsurance business. The minimum paid up equity capital for life or general insurance business is crossers. The minimum paid up equity capital for carrying on reinsurance business has been prescribed as crossers. . 6 Role Functions of ERDA: Section 14 of ERDA Act, 1999 lays down the duties, powers and functions of ERDA. Subject to the provisions of this Act and any other law for the time being in force, the Authority shall have the duty to regulate, promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance business and re-insurance business. Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in sub-section (1), the powers and functions of the Authority shall include. Issue to the applicant a certificate of registration, renews, modify, withdraw, suspend or cancel such registration. Protection of the interests of the policy holders in matters concerning assigning of policy, nomination by policy holders, insurable interest, settlement of insurance claim, surrender value of policy and other terms and conditions of contracts of insurance. Specifying requisite qualifications, code of conduct and practical training for intermediary or insurance intermediaries and agents. Specifying the code of conduct for surveyors and loss assessors. Promoting efficiency in the conduct of insurance business. Promoting and regulating professional organizations connected with the insurance and re-insurance business. Levying fees and other charges for carrying out the purposes of this Act. 1. 7 Functions of Insurance The function of insurance is to safeguard against such misfortunes by having contributions of the many pay for the losses of the unfortunate few. This is the essence of insurance- the sharing of losses and, in the process, the substitution of certain, small loss called the premium for an uncertain, large loss. From an economic perspective, insurance is a financial intermediation function by which individuals exposed to a specified contingency each contribute to a pool from which overfed events suffered by participating individuals are paid. Insurance then is a is an agreement, the insurance policy or insurance contract, by which one party, the policy owner, pays a stipulated consideration called the premium to the other party called the insurer, in return for which the insurer agrees to pay a defined amount of provide a defined service if a covered event occurs during the policy term. The person whose life, health or property is the object of the insurance policy is referred to as the insured. Insurance provides certainty of payment of sum assured at the happening of the event. Since no one can predict the happening of the event in advance, it is not possible to compensate against the loss There is an uncertainty about the time of the event happening. We will not be also sure about the quantum of loss. Provides Assistance to Business Large capital investments on buildings and machinery can be protected against loss by Insurance. The cost of Insurance will be very small compared to the total loss. Provides financial stability to commerce and industry When material damage takes place due to peril, there will be stoppage in production resulting in reduction in profit. Loss of profit Insurance can take care of the loss in net profits in addition to loss of machinery. Insurance serves as a basis of credit Industry and commerce approach banks and financial institutions for financial assistance to develop their business. A collateral security may be necessary to secure against the finance advanced. Insurance policies can provide against such advances. Insurance plays a role in reduction of losses. Insurance companies render advice as to how losses can be minimized by using various safety measures because of their experience. Insurance provides fund for investment The Insurer will have huge funds collected from Insured by way of premiums. These funds are not kept idle, but invested in nation building activities. Insurance earns foreign exchange Indian Insurance companies have branches in different countries, where large volume of business is transacted. This will fetch huge amount in foreign currency. 1. Nature of Insurance Sharing Of Risk Insurance is a social devise to share the financial loss, which may befall individuals due to many events. Whereas it is not possible to share deaths, accidents or sickness, it is always possible to share the economic losses, which come out of Hess events. All persons who are exposed to similar risks come together and share the loss. Co-operat ive Endeavourer In every type of Insurance, large number of persons are brought together to share the loss. They have a common goal biz. , to plan the economic future. Such people come together voluntarily or through publicity or through soliciting. It is the Insurer who compensates the loss of few from the contributions received from many. Value of risk The risk or financial loss is measured in terms of money before insuring. This is done by means of past experience of the Insurer. This will enable him to collect the cost of Insurance in adequate measure. Payment at contingency insured. It may be premature death or end of the term in Life Insurance. In non-life, it may be the happening of the event. Amount of payment In Life Insurance the amount is fixed at the beginning of the contract and full amount is paid at death or end of term. But in other types of Insurance the amount of loss only is paid. CHAPTER 2 Origin and Development of Insurance 2. 1 Introduction Insurance in the modern form originated in the Mediterranean during 14th century. The earliest references to insurance have been found in Babylonian, he Greeks and the Romans. The use of insurance appeared in the account of North Italian merchant banks who then dominated the international trade in Europe at that time. Marine insurance is the oldest form of insurance followed by life insurance and fire insurance. The patterns that have been used in England followed in other countries also in these kinds of insurance. The origin and growth of Marine Insurance, life Insurance, Fire Insurance and miscellaneous insurance are given below: 1. Marine Insurance The oldest and the earliest records of marine policy relates to a Mediterranean voyage in 1347. In the year 1400, a book written by a merchant of Florence, indicates premium rates charged for the shipments by sea from London to Pisa. Marine Insurance spread from Italy to trading routes in other countries of Europe. Marine Insurance in India There is evidence that marine insurance was practiced in India some three thousand years ago. In earlier days travelers by sea and land were exposed to risk of losing their vessels and merchandise because of piracy on the open seas. Moreland has maintained that the practice of insurance was quite common during the rule of Kafka to Rearrange, but the nature and coverage f insurance in this period is not well known. It was the British, insurers who introduced general insurance in India, in its modern form. The Bruisers opened general insurance in India around the year 1700. The first company, known as the Sun Insurance Office Ltd. Was set up in Calcutta in the year 1710. This followed by several insurance companies of different parts of the world, in the field of marine insurance. In 1972, the government of India nationalized the general insurance business by forming GIG. 2. Life Insurance The early developments of life insurance were closely linked with that of urine insurance. The first insurers of life were the marine insurance underwriters who started issuing life insurance policies on the life of master and crew of the ship, and the merchants. The early insurance contracts took the nature of policies for a short period only. The underwriters issued annuities and pension for a fixed period or for life to provide relief to widows on the death of life of William Gibbons for a period of 12 months. Life Insurance in India The British companies started life insurance business in India, by issuing policies exclusively on the lives of European soldiers and civilians. They sometimes issued policies on the lives of Indians by charging extra. Different insurance companies like Bombay Insurance Company LTD. 1793) and Oriental Life Assurance Company (1818) was formed to issue life assurance policies in India. Gradually, the first Indian Company named as Bombay Mutual Life Insurance Society Ltd. Was formed in DCE. 1870. By 1971, the total numbers of companies working in India were 15, out of which 7 were Indian and the remaining were British companies. After several changes have been made for the period from 1930 to 1938, the Government of India passed Insurance Act, 1938. The act still applies to all kinds of insurance business by instituting necessary amendments from time to time. . Fire Insurance Fire insurance has its origin in Germany where it was introduced in municipalities for providing compensation to owners of the property, in return for an annual contribution, based on the rent of those premises. The fire insurance in its present form started after the most disastrous fire in human history known as the Great Fire in London, which had destroyed several buildings. It drew the attention of the public and the first fire insurance commercially transacted in 1667. The Industrial Revolution (1720-1850) gave much impetus to fire insurance. The Nineteenth century marked the development of fire insurance. Fire Insurance in India In India, fire insurance was started during the British regime. The oldest of these companies include the Sun Insurance Office, Calcutta (1710), London Assurance and Royal Exchange Assurance (1720), Phoenix Assurance Company (1782), etc. 4. Miscellaneous Insurance Due to the increasing demands of the time, different forms of insurance have been developed. Industrial Revolution of 19th century had facilitated the placement of accidental insurance, theft and didactic, fidelity insurance, etc. In 20th century, many types of social insurance started operating, biz. , unemployment insurance, crop insurance, cattle insurance, etc. This way the business of insurance developed simultaneously with human and social development. Today, the use of computers in the field of insurance is frequently increasing. Insurance becomes an inseparable part of human development. Miscellaneous insurance are of many types like: Health Insurance All-risks Insurance Consequential Loss Insurance General Public Liability Insurance Burglary Insurance Golf Insurance Money Insurance Fidelity Guarantee Insurance Workmen Compensation Insurance Aviation Insurance which is again a type of miscellaneous insurance, concentrating on each and every aspect of aviation insurance and how it has affected the service sector in recent times. Aviation is the most expensive industry means of transport today. This sector gained importance and created awareness after the 9/1 1 attack on the twin towers of America. After this attack lot of changes took place in the aviation sector and also lot of amendments were made by the law to regulate the aviation insurance contracts. So let us see what these changes are and how aviation insurance forms one of the important part of any countrys insurance sector. 2. 2 Effects of 9/1 1 Attack on Aviation Insurance Following the September 1 1 the attack in the United States, the subject of aviation insurance attracted much attention in the media and elsewhere after aviation insurers worldwide withdrew cover for the specific acts of war and terrorism. As a result, many national governments stepped in to provide temporary insurance cover to ensure that airlines continued flying. Short to medium term solutions At the request of the airline industry the International Civil Aviation Organization established a special group on war risk insurance (SWIG) which, as a short and medium term measure recommended the setting up of an international mechanism funded by insurance premiums to provide no concealable third-party aviation war risk coverage through a non-profit special purpose insurance entity (GLOBAL TIME) with multilateral government backing for the initial years. As a long-term solution the SWIG recommended that an international convention be developed which would limit the third-party liability of he aviation industry for losses arising from war, hijacking and allied perils. Uncertainty ahead? Some four years on from 9/11, most governments have withdrawn guarantees for hull and over to airlines and airport service providers. Notable exceptions include the United States, China and Singapore. The market has now responded with certain insurers offering major airlines limited no concealable third party coverage. Enthusiasm for GLOBAL TIME has waned and a new convention on damage caused to third parties on the ground has yet to be agreed. In Asia at least, the airline industry has experienced a dramatic turnaround in retunes with renewed prosperity. However, as with other classes of catastrophe business, there remain underlying uncertainties in the aviation insurance market that could dramatically change the environment. Convention and statutory limits The Montreal Convention 1999, which governs the liability of airlines in relation to passengers and cargo interests, requires airlines to obtain adequate insurance to cover their liabilities under the Convention. In addition, airlines are required by many states to have minimum insurance limits to cover such liabilities including third party surface damage. After the September 1 1, 2001,

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

A visit to Ashford hospital Essay Example

A visit to Ashford hospital Essay Example A visit to Ashford hospital Essay A visit to Ashford hospital Essay Essay Topic: The Visit On the 11th March 2002 we visited the Ashford hospital where we were shown the x-ray department and a radiographer who gave us a talk for about an hour and a half. In my report I will include most of the aspects in x-rays and at last two in detail, starting from the basic definition of an x-ray to how and why we use them to the effects of x-rays.First it is important to know what an x-ray is: x-rays are high photon energy (that is to say short-wavelength) electromagnetic radiation. They are used in medicine both for diagnosis (radiography) and for therapy (radiotherapy). It is not possible either to reflect or to refract x-rays and therefore x-rays cannot be focused.There are three types of radiation from radioactive materials: Alpha (?), Beta (?), Gamma (?).The term radiotherapy refers to the treatment of a medical condition (usually cancer) by means of X-ray, Y-rays or beams of energetic electrons. X-ray radiotherapy falls in to two main classes-superficial therapy and megavoltage (or MV) therapy.Superficial therapy is used to treat conditions of the skin and surface tissues. The tube voltages employed are such that the X-rays have low penetrating power and therefore cause littlie damage to the healthy tissue beneath the area being treated.Megavoltage therapy is used to treat the condition inside your body and has almost completely replaced the lower voltage techniques once used for this purpose. The electrons used to create the X-ray are accelerated to the enormous energies required in a linear accelerator (LINAC).Advantages of MV Therapy- It decreases the damage sustained by the patients skin. The beam is so penetrating that hardly any of its energy is absorbed by the skin and surface tissues.- It reduces damage to the bone.Rotating BeamsThe purpose of radiotherapy is to destroy malignant (i.e Cancer) cells whilst doing as little damage as possible to the healthy tissue and bone around them. One way of achieving this is to aim the beam at the tumor from a n umber of different directions, i.e. to rotate it about the tumor. This technique is known as multiple beam or rotating-beam therapy and produces a considerable cumulative effect at the tumor but a much-reduced effect everywhere else.Treatment PlanningAny amount of radiation is potentially harmful to the person being exposed to it and therefore it is important that the following considerations are taken into account.- The likely benefits of exposure to radiation must outweigh the risks involved.- The radiation does must be the minimum consistent with obtaining good quality images or destroying malignant cells.- It must not be possible to obtain equally useful information by less risky methods.- The beam must be collimated so that only part of the body that needs to be exposed is exposed.- Increasing the PD across an X-ray tube increases the penetrating power of the X-rays produced but it decreases the proportion of the beam that is attenuated by photoelectric absorption, and therefor e decreases the contrast of the X-ray image. The PD should be high enough to produce the required degree of penetration but not so that there is insufficient contrast. Another consequence of increasing the tube voltage is that it increases the energy, and therefore the penetrating power, of the scattered radiation. This increases the likelihood of the patient receiving a significant radiation dose in parts of the body some distance away from the part being exposed intentionally. It also increases the chance of scattered radiation escaping from the patient a potential hazard to hospital staff in the vicinity.- The radiographer must employ good techniques so that repeat exposures are not required. (This is an important consideration when assessing just what is the minimum dose an underestimating would necessitate a second exposure and therefore an overall increase in dose.)A metal filament (usually tungsten) is heated and some of the electrons acquire sufficient thermal energy to es cape from the surface. The higher the temperature the filament is heated to, the greater the number of electrons that are in effect boiled off. This filament forms the negative cathode. These electrons are accelerated across an evacuated X-ray tube towards the positive anode by a large voltage that is applied across the tube.These electrons strike the anode where 99 % of their energy is converted to heat with less than 1 % resulting in X-radiation. One theory, which is very important to the theory behind X-ray, is the Band theory.The continuous background (or bremsstrahlung radiation) is produced by electrons colliding with the target and being decelerated. The energy of the emitted X-ray quantum is equal to the energy lost in the deceleration. An electron may lose any fraction of its energy in this process. The most energetic X-rays (ie. Those whose wavelength is ?min). X-rays with longer wavelengths are the result of electrons losing less than their total energy.The line spectrum is the result of electron transitions within the atoms of the target material. The electrons that bombard the target are very energetic (100keV) and are capable of knocking electrons out of deep-lying energy levels of the target atoms. (this corresponds to removing an electron from an inner orbit on the Bohr model). If an outer electron then falls into one of these vacancies, an X-ray photon is emitted. The wavelength of the X-ray is given by E = hc/?, where E is the difference in energy of the levels involved, c is the speed of the light and h is Plancks constant. Since the energy levels are characteristic of the target atoms so too are the wavelengths of the X-rays produced in this way.For example, when calculating the wavelength of the most energetic X-rays produced by a tube operating at 1.0 * 10^? V (h = 6.6 * 10^-34 Js, e =1.6 * 10^-19 C, c =3.0 * 10^8 ms-1.)The most energetic X-ray are those produced by electrons which lose all their kinetic energy on impact.KE on impact = wo rk done by accelerating PD= 1.6 * 10^-19 * 1.0 * 10^5Maximum KE lost = 1.6 * 10^-14 joulesThe energy of the corresponding X-ray quantum is hc/?min and thereforehc/?min = 1.6 * 10^-14i.e. ?min = (6.6 * 10^-34 * 3.0*10^8)/1.6 * 10^-14= 1.24 * 10^-11 mJust clarify:(max. photon energy) Emax = eV and ?min = hc/eV(where V is the Potential difference)Band theoryIn an isolated atom, the energy of an electron depends mainly on its distance from the nucleus. An electron has a negative charge and a nucleus has a positive charge, and as an electron falls towards a nucleus it loses energy. The energy of one electron in an atom is also affected by the presence of all the other electrons within that atom, since they all have negative charge and so repel one another.If atoms are very close together, as in a solid, then the energy of each electron is affected by the nuclei and electrons of many nearby atoms. This has the effect of smearing out the energy levels into broad bands. The electrons are no t longer restricted to certain well-defined energies; instead, there are broad ranges of allowed energy, and higher energy band is shared between atoms. If an electron has enough energy to be in this band, then it can break free of its parent atom and move through the solid, i,e it can take part in conduction, so this upper band is called the conduction band. If, however, an electron is still bound to its parent atom then it cannot be moved around freely and it is said to be in the valence band. Between the two bands is a range of energies known as the forbidden gap. As shown in the diagram below.The size of the forbidden gap determines whether a given material is a conductor or an insulator. In metals, the conduction and valence bands overlap, so the conduction band always contains electrons, and so metals are good conductors. In insulators, the conduction and valence bands are separated by a large forbidden gap, and the conduction band is virtually empty. To promote an electron fr om the valence band would require a large amount of energy. In a semiconductor there is still a gap, but the range of the forbidden gap is much smaller. If the energy supplied by heating or by allowing the material to absorb photons, then some electrons gain enough energy to cross the gap and enter the conduction band. The more energy supplied the more electrons are promoted, the resistance of many semiconductors fall with increasing temperature.The X-rays emitted from an X-ray tube have a range of energies, which is called the X-ray spectrum. These X-rays are produced by two different mechanisms, which are distinctive in the resulting spectrum.Continuous spectrum (approx 80% of the output)The electrons pass close to the positive nuclei of the target atoms and are slowed down. he kinetic energy that they lose is converted into photons of electromagnetic radiation which have a continuous range of energies up to a maximum value equal to the tube voltage applied.Continuous spectrum A continuous range of photon energies (up to a maximum) is produced as electrons are decelerated in the target.Characteristic spectrumSome of the electrons penetrate deep into the target atoms, ejecting orbital electrons from the innermost shells near the nuclei. Orbiting electrons from outer orbits fill gaps in the inner shells and emit photons that are characteristic of the target atom. As long as the target has a high enough atomic number, the resulting photon will be the X-ray range.Tungsten is used as the target material for nearly all X-rays tubes because it has a high atomic number and so yields high X-ray outputs and a high melting point to withstand the large amount of heat produced. The characteristic K line spectrum produced bt Rungsten is about 709 keV, which is a tube voltage used for many exposures.Line SpectrumA limited of precise characteristic photon energies is generated through electron transitions to the K and L shells.Focal Spot sizeIdeally the X-rays produced wo uld originate from a point source, which would result in a clear shadow being formed with sharp edges (like a light image formed in a pin hole camera). This is not practical because of the great amount of heat being produced by the X-ray tube. If all the electrons were directed at one tiny point, the target would melt. The target is therefore designed to increase the actual target focal spot while keeping the projected focal spot as small as possible, thus keeping the amount of geometric blur to a minimum. This is achieved by using a disc shaped anode with the target area shapely angled and spinning throughout the exposure.Positioning the film as close as possible to the patient also reduces geometric blur.So how do we select exposure?To see why different exposures are selected for different areas, the methods by which an X-ray beam is attenuated must be studied.Simple scatterThe incident photon energy does not have sufficient energy to remove an electron from its atom so it is simp ly deflected from its course without loss of energy. This scatter is proportional to the square of the atomic number.Photoelectric EffectThe incident photon gives up all of its energy to an inner orbital electron, ejecting the electron from its atom. Some of the energy of the electron is used in overcoming the binding energy of the electron. The vacancy in the shell will be filled by electrons in orbital further from the nucleus, producing characteristic radiation, which in the case of the X-ray photons interacting with the body tissue are small and in the infer-red part of the EM spectrum. Photoelectric attenuation is most useful to diagnostic imaging because the photoelectric absorption is proportional to the cube of the atomic number.Compton scatterThe energy of the photon is much greater than the binding energy of the electron. Only part of its energy is given during the interaction with the outer electron. The photon continues in a different direction with reduced energy and th e electron dissipates its energy through ionization. It is independent of the atomic number.Simple is a problem as it reduces image sharpness and increases low-energy absorption in the patients skin. Photoelectric absorption is useful because, as it is proportional to the cube of the atomic number of the absorbing material, it produces contrast on the image. Material of high atomic number absorb more X-rays by this method and those of low atomic number absorb less. As the tube voltage is increased photoelectric attenuation tends to fall and Compton scatter to rise in importance, and as Compton scatter is not proportional to the atomic number of the absorbing material, the contrast is reduced.How do we reduce scatter?- Reduce the beam size by using an adjustable diaphragm, this reduces the field size and thus reduces the random scatter produced.- Use filtration on the X-ray beam to reduce the lower energy photons that result in simple scatter, allowing photoelectric attenuation to do minate.- Use of compression to make the part X-rayed thinner.So what is the radiographer doing?When taking a simple X-ray, the radiographer must:- Choose the tube voltage- this is usually in the range 60-120kVMore kV increases maximum photon energyIncreases average photon energyIncreases total intensityEffect of changing tube voltage on resulting X-ray spectrum.* Choose the tube current this depends on the number of electrons crossing the tube per second. This is controlled by the filament current, which determines the rate at which electrons are emitted from the cathode.Increasing tube current increases the overall intensity but does not increase the maximum photon energy or change the shape of the spectrum.Increases the blackening of the filmIncreases the absorbed dose by the patient.Increases the heating of the target.Effect of the tube current on X-ray spectrum* Choose the expose timeIncreasing the exposure timeIncreases the blackening of the filmIncreases the patient absorbed doseIncreases the chances of movement blur* Choose the focal spot sizeIncreasing the focal spot size increases the tube current and the voltage that can be applied but reduces geometric unsharpness.How do we stop scatter from getting to the film?We use a grid formed by rows of lead strips stops the scattered radiation from reaching the film. To get rid of the grid lines on the image, the grid may be moved during the exposure.We can also use an air gap to reduce the scatter reaching the film.And what about the film?If we were just to use film just to record the X-ray that were transmitted through the patient we would have to use very large exposures because up to 97% of X-rays pass straight through the film without affecting it at all. We therefore use special cassettes that contain fluorescent screens. These fluorescent screens absorb the X-radiation and re-emit visible radiation in a pattern that is the same as that of the original X-ray beam.Construction of the Rotating Anode Tube InsertFluoroscopy:In X-ray fluoroscopy, X-rays are passed through the patient and onto a fluorescent screen to produce an immediate visible image. This has the advantage over photographic film in that it allows dynamic processes. Sadly, unacceptably high X-ray intensities would be needed to produce image that could be viewed directly. A device known as an image intensifier can increase the brightness by a factor of over a thousand and allows the radiation dose to be cut by up to 90% of the unintensified level. The intensifier has a fluorescent screen in contact with a photocathode. This combination converts the X-rays first to visible photons and then to electrons. The number of electrons at any point on the photocathode is directly proportional to the X-ray intensity transmitted by the patient.The electrons produced by the cathode are then accelerated through a potential difference of about 20 kV, using a series of focusing anodes, towards a second fluorescent screen. The increase d energy and concentration of the electrons creates an image that is very brighter than that on the first screen, and which is usually picked up by a TV camera and fed to a TV monitor or video recorder.Fluoroscopy is a technique that is used sparingly, for despite image intensification, the radiation dose to the patient is still significantly higher than that I a standard radiographic examination. Dose savings can be made by using short bursts of X-rays rather than a truly continuous exposure, but even so the examinations remain relatively dose-intensive.Bibliography:For my report the sources which I used were; the textbook Physics A-level by Roger Muncaster, also the textbook Salters Horners Advanced Physics, a leaflet given to me by the Ashford hospital and finally my own knowledge.Conclusion:You can obviously tell that the visit to the hospital was very informative and helpful. Funnily enough at the time I was writing this report I had broken my wrist and was treated at the Ealin g hospital. On my last visit, to take the full plaster cast off I asked the radiographer if she could give me copy of my wrist, but unfortunately she said that it had to go in report. Instead she let me get my hands on some unwanted X-rays, which was the next best thing, so included them in my report.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Radar Coastal Surveillance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Radar Coastal Surveillance - Essay Example The primary aim of the present research is the determination of the extent to which radar systems efficiently and effectively execute the requirements and tasks associated with coastal surveillance. Hew (2006), a defence systems analyst with the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, contends that no single radar system is capable of fulfilling the stated tasks and responsibilities but that coastal area characteristics have to be matched against specific systems. In other words, the selection of the coastal radar selection system is dependant upon the characteristics of the coastal area in question and no radar system addresses the needs and features of all. Proceeding from an acknowledgement of this argument, this study will review all of radar technology, coastal surveillance requirements and existent methods for radar coastal surveillance to determine the optimal system, or systems for the execution of coastal surveillance responsibilities.As a strategy for responding to the selected researched question and satisfying the research's articulated aim, an in-depth investigative exploration of radar technology, coastal radar systems, and the requirements of coastal radar surveillance shall be undertaken. The results of the investigation shall determine the optimal coastal radar surveillance system(s).Prior to presenting the data upon which the discussion pertaining to the research question shall be based, it is necessary to contextualize the report's focus. This shall be done through a review of the definition for radar systems, an historical analysis of its development and the articulation of its responsibilities and tasks. 2.1 Background Practically all systems, from computer and communication systems to air and naval defense systems may ultimately be identified as multi-tasking technological networks, comprised of several asynchronous parallel distributed operations and whose total response is, by definition, both complex and probabilistic. Further evidencing the inherently complex nature of systems is the fact that operational responses vary in accordance to output events